2009年6月30日 星期二

荷蘭在台灣的宣教 The Dutch in Taiwan

Tao-jen Wang 王道仁
The Dutch in Taiwan. (That which occurred between 1624 and 1661)
Important events:
(1) The Dutch East India Company settled in Taiwan for commercial reasons in 1624. The company hired missionary to do translation, collect taxes and minister their workers. Some of the missionaries focused on Dutch people only, but some of them turned their attention to Pingpu aboriginal people.
(2) The Dutch started the immigration of Han Chinese to Taiwan.
(3) Candidus, the first ordained missionary, came in 1627. He lived with the villagers, not in the castle and suggested that missionary should stay lifelong and marry a local.
(4) Nika event occurred in 1629 and broke the locals’ trust in Candidus.
(5) Junius came in 1629 and translated part of the Bible. He trained local students and plan to open a seminary in Taiwan. Sadly this never happened because Jheng came to Taiwan and driven out the Dutch.
(6) The Seminary of Dutch East India Company was closed in 1633.
(7) Guo Huai-yi Incident occurred in 1651 and made the relationship between Han Chinese and the Dutch worse.
(8) Jheng Cheng-gong came to Taiwan in 1661 and defeated the Dutch. Antonius Hambroek was killed in this event and the Dutch surrendered and left Taiwan in 1662.

(1) The missionaries contextualized Christianity and made the Ten Commandments very practical. But they also introduced western burial style and Dutch style nuclear family life. They also educate the locals and taught them how to write down what they spoke (the Singang language).
(2) The Dutch did not force conversion, but had laws against native religion.
(3) The missionaries had conflict of interests since they were paid by the company.
(4) Protestant theology did not think mission is important then, and the Great Commission was thought to be given to the apostles at that time only. So interest in mission was not that strong.

(1) The Dutch was only in Taiwan for 37 years, and they did a good job in such a short period of time, especially their contextualization of Christianity.
(2) The missionaries did not minister and evangelize all people: some focus on the Dutch only, some focus on Pingpu, but the Han and the aboriginal people in the mountains were not their focus. But the Han rose to power and the Pingpu was assimilated. This might be the reason Christianity disappeared in Taiwan.
(3) The missionaries’ bond with the company made the missionaries be viewed as the ruling Dutch, which the Han Chinese resented. The Han Chinese wanted to rule themselves. And the mission in Taiwan stopped after the company was driven out. If mission was not dependent on the company, the missionaries and the Han Chinese might have better relationships.
(4) The missionaries tried to train local pastors, but the plan was not carried out. Maybe they should not wait for the company and should start the seminary earlier. But their ties with the company might prevent them to do so.
(5) The wrong exegesis and interpretation of the Great Commission hindered protestant mission. Correct exegesis and interpretation of the Bible is very important.
(6) If missionaries revisit Taiwan earlier, maybe the efforts of the Dutch missionaries might be preserved to some extent.

Moffett, Samuel Hugh. A History of Christianity in Asia, Volume 2, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2005.

2009年6月17日 星期三

景教在中國Nestorians in China during Tang Dynasty: important events, theology and evaluation

Tao-jen Wang 王道仁

Important events:
(1) The Turks were evangelized when expanding westward by Nestorians in Persia in the 6th century, and the Turks were related to the Tang dynasty.
(2) Alopen arrived in Xian by the silk road in 635 and met Tai-tsung. Christianity was welcomed and the Scripture was translated; a church was built in Xian.
(3) Persecution occurred when Wu Hou seized power and became an Empress. She made Buddhism the state religion and persecuted Christians.
(4) Persecution stopped after Hsuan-tsung became the Emperor and the church grew. The church gained royal favor and Chi-ho was even invited to say mass at the palace.
(5) Kuo Tzu-I, Issu and Adam were 3 important figures at that time. Adam mastered Chinese and translated many books.
(6) The church disappeared when Tang dynasty fell in the tenth century. The persecution of Wu-tsung might contribute it.

(1) No Nestorian emphasis on separation of two natures.
(2) Trinity, God the creator, sinful man, the incarnation, crucification and resurrection of Jesus, respect and obey God were stated.
(3) God or heavenly hosts were sometimes referred to as Buddha.
(4) Obey the Emperor was put into the Ten Commandments.
(5) Some concepts and phrases of Taoism and Buddhism were incorporated into Christianity.

(1) There might be religious syncretism, but only a little. Some of the phrases might cause confusion though.
(2) The adaptation of Christianity to Chinese culture might help the spread of Christianity initially.
(3) There were no record of training or ordination of Chinese bishop/pastor. This dependence on Persian missionaries might contribute the disappearance of Christianity. In my opinion, this is the main reason.
(4) Dependence on politically important figures might help avoid persecution, but these can change suddenly when they lost power. And when they lost power, the new ruling figure might be even more hostile to Christianity. Mission cannot always depend on politically important figures only. People of low social status might adhere to their religion longer, and God loves everyone regardless of social status.
(5) Part of the Bible was translated, but not all. To their credit, part of it was translated and preserved, and they had no printing technology yet. But if the whole Bible was translated, Christianity might last longer.

Moffett, Samuel Hugh. A History of Christianity in Asia, Volume 2, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2005.

2009年6月16日 星期二



壹、 前言
道教在台灣非常普遍,但由於自己沒有機會接觸,一直覺得很陌生。這次閱讀李豐楙的〈制度與擴散:臺灣道教學研究的兩個面向〉,1 雖然有很多不理解的地方,但當中提到「制度」與「擴散」的對比,以及拜天公的部分,引起了我的興趣。

貳、 〈制度與擴散:臺灣道教學研究的兩個面向〉摘要
李豐楙認為道教與民間信仰的區別一直是台灣道教研究的一大課題,2 文章中他首先介紹台灣道教研究的歷史,從日據時代開始道教就被發現既有制度化的宗教傳承,3 也有擴散混進民間信仰的特性。4 戰後研究繼續針對不同課題深入探討,有研究道法傳授的制度面,5 也有研究儀式的擴散面。6 因此道教和民間信仰的關係與分別,是道教研究需要特別注意的地方。

2009年6月5日 星期五



壹、 前言


這次上課觀看台灣國際勞工協會的紀錄片「八東病房」,並閱讀《我們─移動與勞動的生命記事》中的〈漂浪之歌〉。1 這些外籍勞工的生命故事,讓我有很多省思。聖經說:「因為耶和華─你們的上帝─他是萬神之神,萬主之主,至大的上帝,大有能力,大而可畏,不以貌取人,也不受賄賂。他為孤兒寡婦伸冤,又憐愛寄居的,賜給他衣食。所以你們要憐愛寄居的,因為你們在埃及地也作過寄居的。」(申10:17-19)我想這是我們在台灣的基督徒要好好學習的。

貳、 外勞的工作與生活處境

外勞在台灣的工作生活處境到底是如何呢?看完影片和書,不由得讓我覺得外勞在台灣簡直是承受奴隸待遇。只要想想看,一年365天都不休假,這種生活誰過得下去呢?當初我做住院醫師的時候,即使值班很多,最累也差不多是一週工作100小時。這已經很誇張了,因為如果週休二日每天8小時的話,一週只有40小時。當初工作得那麼累,就只有離開工作場所才有辦法休息。但外籍勞工很多根本沒有休假,並且吃住都是在工作的地方,怎麼可能有好的休息呢?我完全可以體會書中荻微娜不想回「家」的心情:「那是工作的地方」2 !